3. Reducing the number of embryos transferred in Sweden
Reduction of the number of embryos transferred has been introduced to decrease the multiple birth rates (MBRs) after IVF and the associated risks for the children. The aim of this report is to present the effect of two steps in reduction of the number of embryos transferred, when applied in the majority of the patients, on national data for delivery and MBR after IVF in Sweden. This observational study is based on annual reports from all IVF clinics in Sweden to the National Board of Health and Welfare for the time period 1991-2004. The main finding is that despite a successive reduction in the number of embryos transferred, delivery rates were maintained at around 26% while MBR decreased dramatically, from about 35% to around 5%. The same pattern was noticed, independent of age, for all women below 40. In comparison with the USA, lower delivery and MBR were noted for Sweden whereas a higher "birth per embryo transferred" was found. Single embryo transfer (SET) results in satisfactory delivery rates and a dramatic decrease in the MBRs, also when applied on a broad scale. The experience from Sweden ought to encourage other countries to introduce SET more widely.
KarlstrÃ¶m PO, Bergh C. Reducing the number of embryos transferred in Sweden-impact on delivery and multiple birth rates. Hum Reprod. 2007 Aug;22(8):2202-7.
4. HCG levels following methotrexate in tubal pregnancy
Because early prediction of clinical outcome (one or more injections or surgery) of methotrexate treatment of ectopic pregnancy could ease the intensity of follow-up and patient compliance required, we studied the relationship between the change in hCG levels after methotrexate injection and outcome in 129 consecutive patients. A 20% decline in hCG levels between days 1 and 4 during methotrexate treatment has a positive predictive value of 97%.
Agostini A, Blanc K, Ronda I, Romain F, Capelle M, Blanc B. Prognostic value of human chorionic gonadotropin changes after methotrexate injection for ectopic pregnancy. Fertil Steril. 2007 Aug;88(2):504-6.