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Assisted Reproduction


In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)
Microsurgical Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (MESA)
Testicular Sperm Extraction (TESE)

(Author: G. Leyendecker)

  1 Introduction
  2 Principles of Treatment
  3 Definition of Terms
  4 Treatment Cycle
  4.1 Stimulation of follicular maturation
  4.2 Egg retrieval
  4.3 Work-up of semen
  4.4 Sperm extraction and work-up in azoospermia
  4.5 Fertilization and ovum culturing
  4.6 Embryo transfer
  4.7 Monitoring of results
  5 Example of a Treatment Cycle
  5.1 Down-regulation phase
  5.2 Stimulation phase
  5.3 Action phase
  5.4 Waiting phase
  6 Example of a Cycle With Embryo Transfer Resulting From Cryopreserved Eggs
  6.1 Eggs and embryos
  6.2 Build-up of the endometrium
  6.3 Hormonal support of early pregnancy
  7 When are IVF and ICSI Indicated?
  7.1 In-vitro fertilization (IVF)
  7.1.1 Tubal infertility
  7.1.2 Minimal endometriosis and idiopathic infertility
  7.2 Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)
  7.2.1 Spermiogram parameters
  7.2.2 Clinical significance of spermiogram parameters in IVF treatment
  7.2.3 IVF-ICSI study
  7.2.4 Relevance of the IVF-ICSI study for practical application
  7.2.5 Summary
  8 Prospects of Success
  8.1 Number of follicles
  8.2 Number of eggs retrieved
  8.3 Good and poor ovarian response (functional ovarian reserve)
  8.4 Rate of fertilization
  8.5 Rate of fertilization in IVF and ICSI and its correlation with the age of the woman
  8.6 Rate of conception
  8.7 Multiple pregnancies
  8.8 Success in the cryocycle
  8.9 Global treatment results
  9 Course of Pregnancy
  9.1 Miscarriages
  9.2 Does assisted reproduction increase the risk factor of a pregnancy?
  9.3 Multiple pregnancies
  9.4 Avoidance of highly multiple pregnancies of fetuses
  9.5 Genetic risk to the baby from IVF and ICSI
  10 Possibilities of Further Improving the Results
  10.1 Blastocyst transfer
  10.2 Assisted hatching
  11 Possible Complications
  11.1 Cyst formation
  11.2 Hyperstimulation
  11.3 Egg retrieval

Frontpage Cover: © Hartmut Husmann, Frankfurt/Main

© Copyright by FertiConsult GmbH, Darmstadt, Reproduction, also partial, only with permission of FertiConsult GmbH.

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Gerhard Leyendecker